散景再有一个词。它是摄影中最受关注的单词之一，从如何发音到如何“制作”出来。通常看来，摄影师太多了—主要是新手— have placed a disproportionate premium on the concept of 博克h without fully understanding what it is.
Bokeh originates from the Japanese word meaning “blur” or “haze.” As it relates to photography, 博克h refers to the aesthetic quality of a photograph’s out of focus areas, including the specular highlights that most easily reveal a lens’ aperture shape (often rendered as the bright circles that people so love); it does not refer to the blur caused 通过 subject or camera movement.
Bokeh is not a quantitative concept; unlike lens aperture or shutter speed, 博克h has no associated system of measurement. What matters is the quality of the blur, not the amount. Accordingly, 博克h is a rather subjective idea; one person’s opinion of “good” 博克h may not fall in line with another person’s opinion.
Which brings us back to the point of subjectivity. You probably have your own ideas of what constitutes good 博克h, so it is important to understand how the lens you are using renders blur. It’s no different than knowing at which apertures or focal lengths your lens vignettes; some photographers like vignetting 和 use it to great artistic effect. Others hate it. There’s no right or wrong 这里 ; lenses are tools that you have to learn 和 master in order to make the most of them.
The lens, of course, isn’t the only thing that plays a role in creating 博克h. What follows are some tips on how to bring together a number of factors that will help you achieve the “best” possible 博克h in your shots.
- 使用大光圈. To be more specific, use the largest aperture (smallest f-number) available on your lens. A large aperture decreases depth of field, dramatically isolating focus on a narrow part of your subject. Everything surrounding this focal point will be blurred, thus creating 博克h.
- 使用快速镜头。 镜头速度是指镜头的最大光圈（最小f值）；最大光圈越大，镜头被认为越快（f / 1.8比f / 4更快），您可以让更多的光线进入，减少景深的机会就越大，就越有可能拍摄到图像展现出令人愉悦的焦点区域以外的眼睛。
- 快走 Zoom lenses are often criticized for not being up to par with the image quality of prime lenses (though there are some notable exceptions), but if you have a zoom lens, use it to your advantage. Zooming in on your subject will separate it from the rest of the scene 和 , depending on your lens, should leave you with beautiful 博克h.
- 进去吧 您离主题越近，背景就越模糊。每个镜头都有一个最小对焦距离（MFD）；这只是衡量您离主题有多近而仍然锁定焦点的一种度量。在微距镜头中，最大化接近模糊背景的对象的概念。但是，任何一种镜头都可以用这种方式使用，尽管效果不太明显。对于大多数肖像作品，可能不建议这样做。
- 荣耀之刃。 This tip is in 和 of itself subject to quite a lot of disagreement, but I’ll mention it for the sake of awareness. Some will insist that a lens with a greater number of rounded aperture blades will produce better 博克h. Whether this is true depends on how narrowly one defines 博克h. Aperture blades mainly impact the shape of out of focus specular highlights. The general quality of 博克h, as far as the lens is concerned, rests much more upon optical design.
- 不要过度补偿。 Trying to use 博克h to mask poor technique or uninspired composition simply isn’t a good idea. Bokeh should be third or fourth in your thought process — after you’ve chosen an interesting subject 和 established an effective composition, then you can give some consideration to 博克h.
The lesson in all of this: emphasizing 博克h can be a great asset to an image, but it can’t magically turn a bad image good.
要学习如何 fake 博克h in 的Photoshop，看看这个 分步指南!