为什么构图应该是您的第一要务而第二

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作为一名年轻的摄影师,我们曾经教过的第一个技能是“framing”. Now that we are one of the old salts and have mentored many young photographers over the last two decades; we see that 框架 is a tool that seems to be losing importance.

The reasons that made 框架 so important back then are still in play today.

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SOOC(相机直接输出)周(1/7) 通过 珍妮布,在Flickr上

http://farm7.staticflickr.com/6167/6189327192_0d0949e65d.jpg
今天拍摄34:可爱‘n greedy 通过 托米·塔皮奥(Tomi Tapio),在Flickr上

在上面的两个示例中,第一个示例的框架构造不佳。如此糟糕的框架以至于很难(肯定)告诉摄影师想要传达的主题。第二张照片构图完美。当然第一个例子可能是“cropped”接近第二个例子–但是图像质量会受到极大影响。 对于那些不熟悉该术语的人–这是取景的定义(与摄影有关)。

装帧与裁剪的区别

Framing is the arrangement of elements within the confines of the imaging device. In other words, you have a rectangular surface area (film or digital sensor) that is going to image your photograph. The act of 框架 is you making a determination as to how you are going to fill that surface area with your subject. So, what is 裁剪?

裁剪是用于在后期制作中微调图像的工具。对于胶片,它是使用放大器完成的,而对于数字胶片,则是通过缩小已分解图像的大小来完成的。

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龙飞 通过 伦纳特·丹吉,在Flickr上

这是一个很好构图的示例。现在,裁剪操作将通过删除帧的顶部和右侧的一些不需要的背景来微调图像。这种最小的作物将失去很小的分辨率,并将蜻蜓脸的焦点置于令人愉悦的构图中。

为什么首先构架第二作物很重要?

有很多原因。其中有些是技术性的,有些是美学的。

让我们先谈技术原因。在电影中,一位摄影师被教导要“fill the frame”因为当图像被放大(裁剪)到图片的重要部分时会损害图像质量。有两个影响图像质量的因素:卤化银晶体(称为晶粒)尺寸的明显增加和清晰度的损失。这些相同的原理也适用于数字技术,只是我们担心的不是粮食,而是噪音。清晰度损失适用于两种介质。

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蒲公英的喜悦 通过 布伦特2.0,在Flickr上

这张照片展示了“filling your frame”。该图像非常清晰-您可以从字面上看到孩子嘴唇上的各个头发。如果摄影师选择以包括孩子整个头部和双手的方式来构图,然后决定在后期制作中将图像裁剪为这张更具戏剧性的照片;清晰度会大大降低。

在我们勇敢的新数字世界中,优势之一是相机制造商将继续尝试并通过技术弥补技能的不足。在这种情况下“framing”,他们是通过向摄影师提供分辨率不断提高的高分辨率相机来实现的。其背后的想法是,如果必须裁切大部分照片,则仍将具有足够的分辨率以进行适当的打印。

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游eg猎鹰AlaS 06 通过 圣手榴弹!,在Flickr上

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游eg猎鹰AlaS 06作物 通过 圣手榴弹!,在Flickr上

即使是今天的高分辨率相机也有局限性。创建照片时,请使用适当的成像工具(例如适当的镜头)并从良好的视角进行拍摄;不得已时才使用作物! 但是说实话,作为摄影师和艺术家,我们不是总想生产出最好的产品吗? This is where the art of 框架 becomes so important!

Now, what about the aesthetic reasons. The art of 框架 is much like any other creative endeavour. The more you practice at it, the faster, and easier it will come to you. If you took a photograph and upon inspecting your final image you see that you must crop more than 1/3 of your image area- your 框架 needs work.

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评判风格 通过 托米·塔皮奥(Tomi Tapio),在Flickr上

Just a few steps on the part of the photographer, or a slightly increased focal length of the lens, would have saved this photograph from losing half of its resolution when 裁剪 to a better composition.

实践使完美

Train your eye to see the frame within your viewfinder and utilize every pixel of your canvas. The more attention you give to 框架 “in camera”,它会更容易为您服务。

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纽约市街帕特里克节游行 通过 查理·拉萨(Charley Lhasa),在Flickr上

这张照片中有很多浪费的图像区域。背景并没有说明游行队伍中男孩举着国旗的故事。训练您的思想,眼睛和手,以便一起工作。透过取景器查看时,请尝试描绘最后一幅图像挂在墙上。故事中增加了元素吗?如果没有,请摆脱它。

这是我们在新摄影师中经常看到的错误。您的主题要求垂直还是水平构图?图片的自然流动是什么?如果您的拍摄对象需要垂直拍摄而水平拍摄,那么您将被迫立即裁剪一半可用区域!

When taking your photographs train your eye to see the natural flow of the composition. This photograph of the hummingbird screams vertical. Look at the flow of the branches. Even the bird's body positioning stretches from top to bottom. A simple turn of the camera would have provided much better 框架.

注意最终用途

这张照片要去哪儿?它会是墙像的矩形格式吗?还是相册的方形格式?也许两者都有?目的是训练自己预先思考这些目标并制定相应的计划。您想紧紧地构架,但又不能紧紧地构架,以致无法满足客户的需求。

现在,许多相机都提供了一个选项,您可以在其中打开取景器内的网格。这是为了让您了解组成“Rule of Thirds”. It's also a great way to begin training yourself to 填补框架. If you're about to shoot a photograph and you see that your subject is only filling one or two of the squares created 通过 the grid; you're probably not filling the frame appropriately.

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树木芭蕾(未裁剪) 通过 鲍勃·法瑞尔(Bob Farrell),在Flickr上

This image presents an excellent example of a situation where the photographer had all the time in the world to make 框架 a priority. In post, the photographer chose to crop some of the sky as evidenced in the example below. Could the photographer have made that decision 在相机里 ?

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树木芭蕾(裁剪) 通过 鲍勃·法瑞尔(Bob Farrell),在Flickr上

请记住,这是分辨率的百分比。如果最终产品使用相机的18百万像素中的100%,则与仅使用其中的6百万像素相比,它会更清晰,更嘈杂,并且清晰度更高。

训练自己正确构架的另一种有用方法是有时间的时候练习。与拍摄婚礼相比,拍摄风景或其他静态物体时要好练习!

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瓶子(未裁剪) 通过 克劳迪奥·松冈,在Flickr上

When it comes to 框架, sometimes you just have to ask yourself, “这张照片值得吗?”您可能会发现一些有趣的东西,但是如果技术上超出了您的设备和情况的范围,该怎么办。与其制作一张能反映您整个工作状况的低于标准的照片,不如让它走了。

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泰德峰之眼 通过 塞尔玛·吉里,在Flickr上

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泰德峰之眼(变焦) 通过 塞尔玛·吉里,在Flickr上

Sometimes, you may find yourself in a situation where you simply cannot 填补框架. You have to ask yourself- Should you take this photograph or not? Probably none of us would want to pass on taking this beautiful photograph of a sunset over the mountain. But there is a cost. The 裁剪 version utilizes about 20% of the original frame. This image looks good on a monitor, but it would not hold up to the magnification of a large wall photograph.

As with any creative process, the more you actively work at it, the better you will become. Make it a point to practice your 框架. Try to create specific images that require no 裁剪. With a little time and effort, it will become second nature and soon you will be creating the best images possible without giving it a second thought.

http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3382/4641543557_020410d962.jpg
SOOC周(3/7) 通过 珍妮布,在Flickr上

这位摄影师给自己做了一个有趣的自我任务,标题是“SOOC”, (straight out of the camera). This is not a bad idea if you're inspired to improve your 框架 skills!

关于作者

头像

肯特(Kent)是我们的偶尔撰稿人,并且还处理每周的“每周图片”竞赛。自1974年以来,他一直从事摄影工作,您可以 在这里更了解他

明白了,用主题填充框架以排除不必要的环境。
缩放到该程度的被摄对象可能比最终图像中想要的要大。
因此,必须减小尺寸。
减少度对清晰度有什么影响?

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